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Venetian “Terrazzo”

From Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.

The Venetian “Terrazzo”, is a kind of flooring typical of Venetian and Triveneto area.
The flooring is composed of grains of marble and stones up to 40 mm diameter, that has a pebble lime or cement mixed to fine chippings as binder, up to 5 mm diameter.

History

What is know toaday as Venetian Terrazzo was already used in ancient Greece. Through the Roman dominion it has then achieved notoriety in Italy.
At the beginning, this kind of floor was nothing but ground brick, that could come from previous demolitions or from any processing waste, mixed with a binder, once lime. It is believed that it wasn’t even refined, letting the normal use put in evidence the particle size of the compound.
The insertion inside the mixture of small pieces of marble is probably due to aesthetic reasons, but it increases at the same time the wear resistance capacity. Among the most notable examples are the artistic decorations inside the Roman villas.
The types of construction of the floor range from fine-grained to medium grained, with profiling variations in color. In the nineteenth century, they used bigger grains with irregular tiles profiling. Later, in the early twentieth century, they began to use finer grain, regular tiles profiling and insertion of art nouveau decorations.
The lime is still used today as hydraulic binder, although for economic reasons Portland controlled shrinkage cements are used during installation, since they shorten the time for the final result.
Afterwords, for reasons of cost efficiency, 20 x 20 cm tiles have been introduced on the market. A compromise which some say has unveiled the Venetian Terrazzo as handcraft product, but that on the other hand is has considerably increased the spread.

Caranto

From Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.

Caranto (from late Latin caris “stone”) is the name of a Pleistocene paleosol composed by silty clay, silty-sandy extremely compact, particularly present, as stratigraphic horizon, if the lagoon of Venice, but also in the alluvial sediments of the Venetian and Friulian lowlands of which represents the latest Pleistocene sediment.
It is easily recognizable and it looks like a very hard and dense sediment, varying in color from light brown to light gray, with ocher-colored streaks.
It is a continental sediment with a very fine particle size, of fluvioglacial origin who suffered a overconsolidation process (drying in subaerial background), also containing calcareous nodules resulting from the leaching of carbonates by rainwater during its genesis.
Its depositional period dates back to the final stage of the last glaciation (Würm) in the late Pleistocene. With the beginning of the last interglacial period (which marks the beginning of the Holocene), as a result of sea level (marine transgression) it was buried, in particular in the lagoon of Venice, by the deposition of the fine marine and fluvial sediments, rich in organic matter and slightly consolidated.
Caranto, is a level-date guide for the transition between the Pleistocene and Holocene, within the Venetian stratigraphic sequence. In particular in the lagoon of Venice, the Caranto divides separates the Pleistocene heterogeneous sandy sediments from the underlying silt, Holocene silt clay.
Consisting of compact clay it is almost waterproof, so it confines a flap under pressure within the pressurized water-bearing strata overlapping system that are identified in the alluvial deposit of the venetian and friulian lawlands.

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